Weather.com and Naval Research Labs’ Marine Meteorology Division power the weather layer. The weather layer contains sub-layers with clouds, radar, and weather conditions and forecasts. If you want the clouds and radars to animate, you can click on the “information” link, under the weather layer, and see the information about time animations.
The other layers have been reorganized into folders. Featured Content is now Gallery, and some of the layers that were once present on their own are now included in folders.
Here is a picture showing that by Newark, New Jersey, there are some clouds, with a temperature of 39F degrees.
Postscript: Google itself has now posted more information about the change.