Structured Data Markup Was Inevitable, But Is It An Admission Of Failure?

The movement toward structured data markup (i.e., increasing use of standards like Open Graph,, RDFa, etc.) has bothered me for awhile, but I could not exactly put my finger on the issues.

A few weeks ago at SMX East, there were some great presentations on these topics, and I finally realized that I have many major reservations about the proliferation and use of these standards, on many levels (mostly from a publisher perspective; for end-users they are generally a very positive development).

What Are These Standards?

They sound complicated, but in layman’s terms, I would say: think of them as being similar to additional meta-tags on a page, similar to a meta-description or meta-keywords, but often in XML format, which convey certain structured information about various objects.

Like meta-tags, these are intended to be machine-readable, but not necessarily presentable to humans in a browser. Much of the rich information showing up in search engine results (such as reviews, prices, etc.) are being enabled by publishers (i.e., website owners) exposing their data using these standards.

Figure 1 shows some structured data that Google displays in its search results already. Search for [], [microformats], or [open graph], if you’d like to learn more.

Example of Structured Markup Showing up in Search Results

Figure 1 – Example of Structured Markup Showing up in Search Results

Why These Are Bad For Publishers From A Search Standpoint

By showing rich information in the search results, Google and others can get users to navigate to the information they need more quickly. Another way of thinking about this is, they are essentially denying publishers the navigational clicks that users would have given them, had they navigated to the site and then had to poke around.

For example, showing a Movie showtime in a SERP denies the publisher the opportunity to try to get the viewer to purchase a ticket for pickup at the box office; the user may see the showtime and then move on to their next task, simply buying the ticket at the theater.

But Aren’t Publishers Who Implement Microformats Getting More Traffic?

Yes, this seems to be the consensus, although it’s not clear why. It could be that the search engines are intentionally favoring pages that expose information in this way (which seems likely), or it could also be that (as someone in the audience at one of the SMX East talks brought up), the use of these schemas may simply make the publisher do a better job of organizing and exposing their information.

For instance, if you’re using schema markup that exposes name, address, and phone number, you’re unlikely to forget including your phone number (it acts as a sort of checklist) and it will likely make you also expose the phone number in your HTML for users to see.

Either way, publishers who use structured data markup are reporting higher organic traffic; but think about it for  a minute; clearly, this must be at the expense of others who are not using them and are experiencing lower traffic as a result.

What worries me is: what happens when everyone (or at least the top 10 search results) are all using structured data markup? At that point, an argument for higher traffic will not hold water — it’s no advantage if everyone is doing it.

Microformats Make It Possible For Anyone To Steal Your Content

Microformats make your information that much more easily scraped and parsed by sites that you don’t want taking your information, not just by search engines – scrapers, even competitors who want to monitor your pricing, and so on.

Why is it OK for a search engine to show my pricing information in a SERP, but it’s not OK for my competitor to show it on their website?

Microformats, by freely allowing search engines to show information provided in them, seem to be on a legal slippery slope – how are you supposed to delineate between accepted uses and non-accepted uses, when there is no mechanism for doing so?

Where Does It Stop?

Anyone who’s familiar with schemas from the IT world, such as SNMP, DMI, USB, etc., can attest to their usefulness, but these are schemas created for very specific purposes.

The problem with using schemas to describe information about objects on the Internet is: the entire world is essentially exposed on the Internet. The Internet has information about recipes, tress, celebrities, maybe even eventually, the freckle on your left finger.

If the industry pushes towards structuring information on the Internet, what that really is accomplishing is structuring data about everything in the world. If you don’t believe me, take a look at the full hierarchy on — it looks like a slippery slope to me with no end in sight, this hierarchy will very likely continue to be fleshed out and expanded over time.

Microformats Are Anti-Human & An Admission Of Failure

Yes, you read that right. According to Genesis, God had Adam name all of the animals. He didn’t tell Adam to name, catalog, index, organize, and label every object in the Garden down to the level of tree 5 is a parent of branch 6 which is a parent of twig 4 which is a parent of leaf 3 which has the properties green and serrated.

I was always under the impression that the search engines were soaking up all the Ph.Ds in the fields of machine learning and artificial intelligence so they could have computers figure things out for us.

For instance, I would have thought that someone at Google would, by now, have written a program to examine a webpage, determine that it’s a recipe, and parse it out and figure out the ingredients, steps, and times. Instead, it seems that Google’s solution is instead, hey, it would be great if you would just mark up and label all the information in your recipes – thanks.

I thought that’s what computers were for in the first place, figuring stuff out! Computers should infer meaning, not have humans label meaning.

The phrase Semantic Web, which is used to refer to these schema’s role, is, in my opinion, the biggest technology misnomer of all time — there’s nothing semantic about them. It should be called the we failed to understand actual meaning so we’re going have everyone label everything instead Web.

The best Google can do with all these Ph.Ds is to tell us: hey everyone, please mark up everything in the world because that will make things so much easier for us.

Really? Why did you bother hiring all those people, is that the best you guys can come up with?

But Your CMS Will Take Care of All That, You Don’t Have To Do It Yourself

You can argue that it’s not a waste of human effort because your CMS will take care of this. While that’s somewhat true, engineers created the CMS to be aware of whatever the particular schema was.

Your DBA or Web Developer worked to integrate your  back-end data in a structured way with the CMS. And for the particular schema at hand to be developed, people from all over the world had to fly to Paris, or wherever, for some meetings, and argue and haggle over what properties the object would have, and where it would sit in the hierarchy. This is all human effort.

Microformats Divorce Machine Readable Data From Human Readable Data

If you think about it, by exposing data on your Web page for a machine to read, which you are not showing to a human, it’s almost like cloaking — you’re presenting different information to a spider than you are to the user. Of course, you should show the user the same data, but in a nice presentable HTML format.

How is this different from cloaking? In fact, as search engines get smarter at parsing this data, I’m sure some bright folks will start to put checks in place — hey, this guy is saying one thing to us but saying something different to humans.

Then publishers will have to start worrying about running reports to identify which pages on a website have schema information that doesn’t  match the rest of the content on the page. More complexity we didn’t need.

Microformats Are Redundant! Microformats Are Redundant!

Why why list the same data multiple times on a page in different formats? While you’re at it, why don’t you throw a bunch of hreflang tags on your page? Maybe you can get it to be four or five times as long as it needs to be with as much junk as possible on it; that should be great for your page load speed time!

The great thing about the HTML standard was, it included everything that was sufficient, but only those things that were necessary – why are we now moving toward saying the same thing on a page over and over again, in all these different formats?

In A World of Microformats, Robots.Txt Is Not Enough

It’s important that major improvements in one area be matched by improvements in supporting areas. For instance, now that Google has Universal Search, wouldn’t it be great if the AdWords Keyword Tool actually told you something about Universal Results? (Fail!). That’s a minor example of a supporting area that failed to keep up with a megatrend.

With schemas, the key supporting area that is failing to keep up, in my opinion, is the robots.txt format.

Somehow, search engines appear to have gotten society (and in some cases, courts) to consider your “robots.txt file as being the equivalent of some sort of machine-readable legal agreement.

Personally, I view this as a ridiculous position — I’m sure the major search engines are constantly crawling sites whose Terms and Conditions expressly forbid using a program to read the site — but search engines have used robots.txt as a fig leaf for either showing or not showing content in SERPs on a Yes/No basis.

Now that Microformats are proliferating and we’re being indoctrinated that if something is structured, it can be shown in a SERP, what is to prevent the search engine from showing anything that’s marked up in this way in the SERP? Why not mark all the content as paragraph 1, paragraph 2, and paragraph 3, and just give them the whole thing?

The robots.txt format, in my opinion, needs to evolve so publishers can specify how their information, on a granular basis, can be used, not just whether their information can be used. Ideally, robots.txt should be a fragmented thing that lives on each page, and each tiny piece of content should be able to specify the publisher’s intent for its usage.

A History Lesson – SGML

Remember SGML? Most of you don’t. SGML was (maybe still is, I don’t know) a structured markup language that was put together for a variety of purposes, but when I encountered it in the early 90′s it seemed to be driven primarily by the technical writing community, for the purpose of making manuals and spec sheets machine readable.

I was in the semiconductor industry at the time, and SGML was simultaneously all the rage for the technical writing community as well as sort of the bane of it — because it was a huge, bloated standard that appeared to have been designed by some out-of-control committees that went way over the top.

Fortunately, HTML, which is sort of a tiny nephew to SGML, used some of  the conventions of SGML, but was created as a much more simplified markup language for describing simpler hypertext documents. Then, when Tim Berners-Lee conceived the Internet at CERN, all you really needed was a title tag, some content, a few bold and paragraph tags, and — boom — you could have a webpage.

What’s going on with this Schema stuff is a return to the SGML approach — management by committee, huge bloated hierarchical class/property standards, and an Internet that is going to become unnecessarily complex.

If You’re A Large Company, You Need To Drive These Standards

Some of these standards, and decisions about their adoption, are actually going to involve life-and-death decisions for companies. If you don’t believe me, go back in time and ask FTP Software, the provider of a popular TCP/IP stack for Microsoft Windows, what they thought when Microsoft decided to include its own TCP/IP stack in Windows!

If you’re a travel provider, you should be worried about search engines increasingly providing travel search information right on the search results page – so you probably should be worried about any schemas being worked on in the field of travel information.

What about insurance providers? Real Estate? Credit Reports? If you don’t want to get disintermediated by a large search engine, you might want to get involved in the standards process… and not always to make it successful.

This is sort of the dirty little secret of the standards world you won’t read about in news articles, but many standards committee members often actually have a fiduciary responsibility to their company to make sure that any standard that is ratified is a failure, or leaves out key pieces of data so their company can still continue to dominate its market space.

Don’t believe me? Get involved in a standards committee involving a dominant market player and just observe their behavior!

A Positive Unintended Consequence

This was mentioned by one of the panelists: once the entire world has been categorized and marked up, it will be much easier to make a new search engine, because there won’t be much it will have to actually understand anymore.

As these schemas proliferate, presumably some interesting startups will be created that leverage this data in interesting ways; ten years from now we will no doubt be surprised at another two or three big players that have sprung up from nothing around this megatrend.


So, in short: in my opinion, from a publisher’s perspective, these emerging structured data markup standards allow search engines, competitors,  and scrapers to more easily steal your content; may in the long run deny you clicks, result in unnecessary page bloat, unnecessarily complicate things; and are setting the industry back twenty-five years in terms of making humans structure data rather than having computers infer structure.

However, it looks like they are great for end-users and are inevitable, so you’d better get on the bandwagon!

Opinions expressed in the article are those of the guest author and not necessarily Search Engine Land.

Related Topics: All Things SEO Column | Channel: SEO | Google: Rich Snippets | | SEO: Tagging


About The Author: helps enterprises to scale up online marketing efforts through custom engagements tailored to their unique situations. Ted blogs on a variety of online marketing topics with a special emphasis on SEO at Coconut Headphones. You can find him on Twitter @tedives.

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  • Henry Zeitler

    Good read, but the conclusion is to use Micros and not to get used by them.
    There’s nothing wrong with implementing and friends, but do it in a conscious way. Just label and provide as much information as needed to make the user curious and visit your site, not the whole recipe.
    Let your teaser-content appear in whatever will scrape it, but make sure the reader has to visit your site to get all the informations he needs.
    Not implementing Micros means missing the train and throw away an opportunity to gain attention.

  • Colin Guidi

    I did enjoy this article, you helped me raise some internal questions and thoughts. I do however think structured data markup has a ton of benefits, and even if we get to the point of every listing hosting some form of structured data markup, you’re going to want to be in that space and use that markup. It might not be an ‘advantage’ once everyone is doing it, but its for sure a disadvantage if you’re not in the inner circle.

  • Maurice Walshe

    Interesting so people are fining that lightweight “internet” style standards are some times not good enough :-) and are now trying to reinvent the wheel X.400 and x.500 had
    much better definitions of how to represent a person decades ago when compared
    to schema.

    The trouble is the ML tasks that the author thinks should be easy are in fact hard to do both at scale and with arbitrary input as opposed to tame small data sets you can use at Uni – so I have some sympathy for Google.

    You have to imagine my looking over the tops of my glasses as I type this.

  • sharithurow

    Hi Ted-

    I actually agree with you. I understand your point of view.

    When I create wireframes, prototypes, and fully coded templates, I let the content dictate which wireframe, prototype, and template that I will use. And I will modify anything that needs modifying based on user feedback, usability tests, analytics data, and other sources of information.

    Sometimes, search results data is a self-fulfilling prophecy. I don’t know the answer to that dilemma, but I do constantly observe the self-fulfilling prophecies in search results all of the time.

  • Mary Kay Lofurno

    Wow Ted, I knew you had some feelings about this when we sat through those sessions at SMX from some of your comments then. I am glad you have put them together here.

    I myself question the bloated pages and redundancy of it especially when speed is suppose to be an important factor. Thanks for a good read and a different perspective on schemas as they have been the darling of the technical seo now for about a year and a half, refreshing. See you at the next Semne meeting. Mary Kay

  • John Britsios

    Aaron, I really appreciate very much that you took the time to expressed very well the facts and that I did not need to go into this any further.

    I hope Ted will follow up. I am very curious to hear what he has to say to all this.

  • M-j Taylor

    I’m not sure I grasp why this markup makes it easier to steal your content. Because it’s displayed in SERPs? And I don’t get your analogy to SGML; other than being mark up, I don’t see the relevance. And how is it like cloaking? I get that you think Google should be able to parse all the data without it; but it can’t yet. Why? Well, take your example of recipes. Not every website formats recipes the same way as every other. I think you’re suggesting that Google should figure out every possible way a site could format a recipe so that it can recognize and display them. I think it makes more sense to offer markup so that Google can make sense of a recipe in any format. Personally, I’ve found the use of rich snippets to be a valuable way to communicate
    with the search engines and to enhance display in the SERPS. I wish I had the time to
    implement them more fully.

  • John Britsios

    M-j Taylor, it is retarded to expect from Google to create markup, which they already attempted with Bing and Yahoo, the so called microdata. W3C took action to reserve their duty and they already came up with RDFa Lite.

    What I think the problem here is, that many people prefer to stick to plain HTML. But those must bare in mind that there is no way of getting structured data from unstructured text except by using NLP. If Google and the other search engines should stick to NLP, then we should start moving backwards. Maybe HTML 2.0? LOL

  • John Britsios

    Mary I honestly hope that those thoughts were not presented at the SMX sessions. I would be seriously disappointed if that was the case.

  • John Britsios

    Shari, I do not agree with Ted in any point, but you are making very valid points when it comes to designing for users. But the answer to your question about search engines is, designing with using machine readable markup and protocols if you want to comply to the requirements of semantic search engines.

  • M-j Taylor

    So, if I am getting you correctly, John; you’re saying the same thing I said about recipes – they are unstructured text? And therefore not semantically clear to search engines without markup?

  • John Britsios

    That is exactly what I mean.

  • alanbleiweiss

    Far better minds than mine have already responded with quite valid counter-positions, so I’ll keep my rant as short as possible. Moving into the age of has been a much-needed movement for too long. I don’t believe it’s an admission of failure. Instead, it’s an admission that the web is truly more complex, with many more challenges than even Google and Bing can overcome in their end-goal effort. Which means they need our help. Why is that failure?

    The indexed web pre-Schema was really more like an ugly and too-complex to process Excel spreadsheet, and with proper implementation it will become or get closer to being like that of true relational database. That’s key where the value is, and why, when properly implemented, discoverability, identity, and ultimate value assignment will be closer to accurate than without such additional markup.

    Another way to see it is if you look at an auto parts store – sure, there’s bins of parts. You may think you’re okay with having a section for the drive-train, and an individual bin for “drive shaft related parts”. Yet the belief that “this is good enough, and will deter thieves because they have to rummage through the bin to find a specific part” is myopic and unduly discounts the lack of true efficiency for the store owner to actually find a specific part of that drive shaft sub-system within the “drive-train” section of the store.

  • Scott True

    In the conclusion, Ted wrote, “…it looks like they are great
    for end-users…” Isn’t this exactly why it’s a good idea? From what I understand
    with the whole “Content Marketing” movement (Of course, this is something that
    has been going on for a long time, we are just re-labeling it and talking about it
    more), satisfying the end-users is what, in the long run, gets you more
    business. I know this is kind of vague, but for those that understand the “Content
    Marketing” method, it makes sense. I do appreciate this perspective Ted. I don’t
    want us all to agree all the time. Then we would be uncertain that we’re right.
    By “arguing”, it enables us to see things differently and sometimes change our
    points of view for the better. For this particular topic, I am agreeing with
    Aaron Bradley for reasons that have already been stated well. No need to repeat
    them. I am excited about all the things we can do with structured data and I’ve been thinking about many creative ways I can take advantage of it. I like the idea Henry suggested about exposing your teaser content but like Aaron suggested, If the user doesn’t need any more than that, they really shouldn’t be going to the site to click around anyway.

  • Daniel Mills

    This is an excellent discussion of the many points and counterpoints on the value of semantics on the web.

    In general I don’t support the assertions that microtagging bloats pages, makes content easier to steal, results in lost clicks, and, most of all, sets us back 25 years. I sharethe same reasoning why with Aaron, Alan and others on why.

    I do have two additional thoughts:

    1) Could it be that one reason Google doesn’t try to figure
    everything out about an unstructured page and then display it in a contextual
    SERP is that is represents a less defensible act of unauthorized republishing than
    does using structured content for the same purpose because the creator is
    essentially inviting Google to do so by adding the markup in the first place.

    2) As far as the “dirty little secret” of standards committees
    go, I couldn’t agree more with the author that corporate members of said committees
    all come with their hidden agenda. However, this far from a secret and you don’t
    have to have participated in a standards organization to know so. Anyone who’s worked on the web have seen it in action with HTML. Microsoft, Google, Apple and others handcuff the standardization and adoption by putting the corporate agenda before the community interest.

  • Mary Kay Lofurno

    Not sure what you mean John. When I sat with Ted during the SMXeast presentation on this and he had some strong reactions then so all I was doing was remarking about the fact that he was able to get them articulated in an article.

  • John Britsios

    Mary I need to clarify here that I am involved in the Semantic Web Initiative since 2000 (5 years before I even got involved in SEO). To back me up, our company converted our web site markup to XHTML+RDFa markup in October 2008, which means before Google even mentioned a word about Rich snippets, etc and I was arguing in forums with different SEOs since 2006 about the future and the need of the implementation of these technologies. I would have add my comments here, but I saw no reason to do that, since Aaron Bradley above explained what I would have said.

    Read his comments and we can take the discussion from there if necessary.

  • Mary Kay Lofurno

    Again John – I think you are missing the inflection of my remark. I read what Aaron wrote. I see this as something that we will have to wait and see. I can say that what is missing from this whole equation is a real understanding of what it takes to get these standards implemented.

    I have busted my tail for two plus years battling for resources internally to get rich snippets up on one of our ecommerce sites. Its an up hill battle. I wish these people would keep this in mind every time they release some new standard or way of doing things. IT departments are choking on work and just because someone convenes it on a standards board does not mean that CIO or VP of IT is going to be impressed enough to alot the extra resource time.


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